## Question File Number 2

This section contains extra material for background knowledge and for reference. Browse through it to determine its content before trying to find the answers to the examination questions!

### Section 1

This is an extract from the International Radio Regulations, from Article 2:

As the unit of frequency is the hertz (Hz), frequencies shall be expressed:

- in kilohertz (kHz), up to and including 3 000 kHz;

- in megahertz (MHz), above 3 MHz, up to and including 3 000 MHz;

- in gigahertz (GHz), above 3 GHz, up to and including 3 000 GHz.

VLF

LF

MF

HF

VHF

UHF

SHF

EHF

3 to 30 kHz

30 to 300 kHz

300 to 3 000 kHz

3 to 30 MHz

30 to 300 MHz

300 to 3 000 MHz

3 to 30 GHz

30 to 300 GHz

300 to 3 000 GHz

### Corresponding Metric Subdivision

Myriametric waves

Kilometric waves

Hectometric waves

Decametric waves

Metric waves

Decimetric waves

Centimetric waves

Millimetric waves

Decimillimetric waves

Note: Prefix: k = kilo (103), M = mega (106), G = giga (109).

This diagram shows Frequency on the horizontal axis, shown from DC to Daylight. Note that the horizontal axis is logarithmic (each horizontal interval increases by x10). The range subdivides into audio frequencies, radio frequencies, and light.

Frequency bands are allocated to the Amateur Service at points throughout the spectrum, shown in this diagram as AR. .

The next Sections following below identify the frequency limits and other licensing details for the bands available to New Zealand's radio amateurs.

### Frequency Band

130-190 kHz

1800-1950 kHz

3.50-3.90 MHz

7.00-7.30 MHz

10.10-10.15 MHz

14.00-14.350 MHz

18.068-18.168 MHz

21.00-21.45 MHz

24.89-24.99 MHz

27.12 MHz

28.00-29.70 MHz

50.00-54.00 MHz

144.0-148.0 MHz

430-440 MHz

1750 metres

160 metres

80 metres

40 metres

30 metres

20 metres

17 metres

15 metres

12 metres

11 metres

10 metres

6 metres

2 metres

70 centimetres

### Section 3

For study and for examination purposes, the bands up to 440 MHz should receive priority consideration.

The current Amateur Frequency Allocation Chart with its Notes is in the General User Radio Licence (GURL) for Amateur Radio Operators - on page 2. print it and study it

This chart undergoes revision as regulatory circumstances change, so please occasionally check the MED RSM web site for any later version http://www.rsm.govt.nz/cms

The MED will give sympathetic consideration to requests for reasoned variation to individual amateur licence conditions. An example is the temporary use of higher-power for moon-bounce experiments.

#### Operating Conditions and Courtesies

Please note that all radio amateurs have equal rights to use amateur radio frequencies. This means that courtesy in operating must prevail. Refer to Operating Procedures - General

### Section 4

#### Sharing of Bands

Amateurs share some frequency bands with stations of other services. Full details about sharing are provided in the International Radio Regulations but only the general principles of sharing and the bands involved are needed for this examination.

Several Notes to the Amateur Frequency Allocation Chart in the General User Radio Licence (GURL) for Amateur Radio Operators - on page 2 - explain the use by amateur stations of the shared bands. See Notes 2 and 3.

Favourable access by radio amateurs to some bands used by other radio services has been given by the regulatory authorities. It is very important that these arrangements be respected so they can continue. The golden rule is: Don't cause any interference to any other stations

As an amateur station licensee, you have frequency agility, you can change your operating frequency to avoid other stations. Other services are usually licensed for one assigned frequency only.

Further details about NZART can be obtained from the web at  NZART. There are several categories of NZART membership which include Transmitting and Non-Transmitting. Anyone interested in radio can join. E-mail enquiries to  nzart@nzart.org.nz will bring details about NZART Membership. On-line details about  Joining NZART - Membership has advantages.
Contact Webmaster at e-mail  webmaster@nzart.org.nz
Compiled Mon Nov 29 2010 at 8:11:49pm

01 |  02 |  03 |  04 |  05 |  06 |  07 |  08 |  09 |  10 |  11 |  12 |  13 |  14 |  15
16 |  17 |  18 |  19 |  20 |  21 |  22 |  23 |  24 |  25 |  26 |  27 |  28 |  29 |  30

Introduction |  Control Panel |  Booklist |  Order Form |  Questions |  Study Notes